Drug Testing Program for DOT

DOT stands for the U.S. Department of Transportation. There are certain regulations imposed for licensed drivers who activate in the commercial industry. All regulations are easily accessible online, as everyone has access to them. Drivers who operate vehicle in commercial purposes have both rights and obligations once they take part of the drug testing program for DOT. CDL drivers are required to be subjected to FMCSA drug testing, those operating for the public, not the ones that have the vehicles on their own property. Employers along with the drug testing program administrator will establish the date of the drug and alcohol testing and all notified drivers will report to the testing area.

Drug testing program for DOT includes several required tests and the majority of providers offer them. Every transportation-oriented business should consider the following no matter what. They are part of the regulations and should not be omitted. One of the most important tests is pre-employment testing. New drivers must be tested for alcohol or drug use before they are allowed to operate any type of vehicle by employers. In case there is the necessity, post-accident testing is required for drivers who are involved in a serious, fatal accident or whenever they receive citations for traffic injuries or accidents. There shouldn’t be a longer period of time of 8 hours until the alcohol testing and 32 hours for the drug testing.
FMCSA drug testing program includes as well random testing and employers are advised to manage such testing on a regular basis, within each year. Drivers should not be aware of the testing period and they must be taken unannounced. Alcohol testing is done while drivers are at work. Drug testing on the other hand can be conducted when the driver is at home even, as drug consumption is illegal by all means. Drivers who refuse to participate or who are not present at the testing area when they are called, can be considered as positive consumers. Afterwards, it is up to employers to decide their situation.

There are situations in which an employer can require testing for a specific person due to reasonable suspicion. If an employee shows any sign of drug abuse or alcohol abuse, supervisors can take action. However, the decision must be based on some facts, such as the employee’s behavior, speech and more. Drivers who want to return to duty and manage their actions in a safe environment are required to pass the return-to-duty testing. And finally, there is the follow-up testing, which is mandatory for drivers who have consumed alcohol or drugs and have been found positive.

It is important for every employer to be part of a drug testing program for DOT and to make sure all employees operating vehicles on public roads are responsible and not under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Positive results can be devastating for the company but also for the employee’s family, as it usually leads to unemployment. Afterwards, the employee needs to prove that no more substances are consumed by following the return-to-duty process. FMCSA drug testing is available from a wide range of service providers.

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What You Ought to Know About Braces

According to American Association of Orthodontists, about 4.5 million people in the United States are wearing braces or other appliances to achieve a beautiful smile and healthy teeth. Today, orthodontic treatments are more contented and take less time than it did years ago.

If you want to show off your smile, you can customize it as there are brackets with different shapes that include hearts, football, etc… and elastics too are available in school color and holiday hues. There are two types of braces: fixed which are worn all the time and removed by a dentist, the second type is easily removable by the patients themselves. The types are selected based on patient’s treatment needs.

Braces – Not Just for Looks

Odessa braces are more than a means to a stunning smile; they can improve dental health and function. Braces are used to move teeth that are overcrowded and also correct severe bite problems that would hamper eating and give a greater risk of gum disease and bone loss. Bite problems occur when the upper and lower jaw don’t come together properly. Uncorrected bite issues cause teeth to wear and put stress on jawbone causing pain. Braces also correct malocclusion that may be a result of thumb-sucking, the premature loss of teeth or an accident.

How Braces works?

Braces work by putting pressure against the teeth, moving them gradually over time. A metal wire known as arch wire that runs outside the teeth applies the pressure. Rubber bands made of surgical latex put additional pressure on the teeth that the arch wire alone cannot do.

Alternatives to Braces

Another straightening option to braces is Invisalign. Invisalign is approved by the FDA to straighten crooked teeth in people who have all of their second molars. Instead of wires and brackets, it uses a series of clear removable aligners. The aligners are removable for eating, brushing and flossing, so unlike people who wear braces, invisalign wearers aren’t restricted from eating hard or chewy foods. The total treatment time with invisalign averages between nine and 15 months.The aligners are removable for eating, brushing and flossing, so unlike people who wear braces, invisalign wearers aren’t restricted from eating hard or chewy foods. The total treatment time with invisalign averages between nine and 15 months.

Remember the patient and orthodontist are partners in this adventure and helpful participation by the patient can make the process proceed as planned giving you the desired result.

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Wine Making Procedure for White Wine!

Wine making or vinification is the production of wine, which starts from the selection of the grapes or other produce and ends with bottling the finished wine. Most of the wine is made up from grapes, but apart from that it may also be made from other fruits or plants. Mead is a wine that is made with the use of honey, which is the primary ingredient after water. Winemaking can be divided into two general categories, one is still wine production and another one is sparkling wine production. The science of wine and winemaking is known as an oenology. A person who makes wine is traditionally referred to as a winemaker or vintner.

Once the grapes are picked and transported to the winery, certain preparatory steps are taken before the actual winemaking begins. Cleanliness and sanitation are essential for good winemaking as bad bacteria can cause disastrous results. Equipment must be sanitized with an O2 based caustic solution, rinsed with water and finally treated with an anti- bacterial sulphite solution. To make the equipment free from the excess sulphite, everything is rinsed with water for one more time. It is estimated that approximately ten gallons of good quality water are needed for every one gallon of wine produced. When the grapes come to the winery, they are treated with 50-75 ppm of free sulfur dioxide. This process is called sulphating, and inhibits the unwanted microorganisms and wild yeast species on the grapes.

Then, the grapes are picked and immediately processed in the winepress. The grapes are gently squeezed for about two hours and the juice is pumped into holding tanks. In the tank, the juice is chilled and sediment from the fruit drops to the bottom. The sediments are removed and the wine is ready to be fermented with the usage of yeast. After pressing the grapes, the process of fermentation takes place. The juice is transferred to fermenting vats, and the yeast is added. After this stage, the wine can now be used to describe the grape juice. Some specific yeast is used to ferment grape juice into wine. In some case, the wild yeast still exists in the juice, the domestic species can dominate and the fermentation can proceed in a proper manner.

Then, the juice is put in large vats from which the air is excluded. In this way, oxidation is prevented and the growth of bacteria is discouraged. The process of fermentation takes place very slowly over a period of ten to thirty days. After fermentation, Malo-lactic fermentation takes place. This is actually a secondary fermentation. This is a reaction in which malic acid is converted into lactic acid and also results in the texture of the wine which changes from crisp and light to creamier buttery. The benefit of secondary fermentation is that it reduces the amount of total acidity and causes a mellowing of the tartness in the wine. Then the process of aging comes. The amount of time that a wine aged is equal to the time that elapses between fermentation and drinking. The last step to make wine is to separate it from the dead yeast cells and other sediments that have precipitated from the juice. The wine is chilled to create more clarification and then bottled. This is how your wine is actually made and you can also store in using various wine accessories.

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Ideas To Gain Power Over Your Pimples

You might never win your battle with pimples for years should you don’t investigate the best and remedies that pertain to you. This article contains helpful tips and shows how you defeat your pimples problem.

Tea tree oils can be particularly ideal for reducing the quantity of pimples fighter that ought to be applied instantly to spots on the skin where you stand prone to acne. Tea tree oil gives a non-trying way to eliminate oil from backing up in your acne without drying skin.

People who have problems with zits frequently have the urge to pop their zits. In the event you can’t resist this temptation, make sure you thoroughly wash the hands and nails in order to avoid contaminating your pores with bacteria.

Avoid acne by using clean pillowcase every single night. Just picture yourself resting the face for this each night.

Avoid pimples by laying over a clean pillowcases each night.Just think about rolling across this every night.

Zinc is a marvellous method to reduce acne as it reduces the quantity of damaging toxins beneath your skin. Cystic pimples could be reduced to some few bumps through taking zinc everyday.

If you can to, go swimming regularly in the interest of your acne. Swimming provides exercise and develop your body. Chlorine in pool water could possibly aid in reducing your pimples.

Changing your bed sheets frequently is shown to help control acne. These oils may get on bed linens when you sleep. They could then transfer back to your skin again. You ought to wash your sheets and pillow cases one or more times per week to get rid of the cycle.

If you can to, try swimming when you are able. Swimming is a superb exercise and relaxation which can help take control of your acne. Chlorine is effective in reducing the quantity of pimples bumps.

Are you aware that frequently using a cellphone might be causing your pimples breakouts?Cellular phones can transfer oil from your hair and face and deposit them straight back to your face. You can avoid this by wiping your phone with alcohol.

You might like to scratch or touch your skin, but spreading the oil and dirt from your fingers to your skin is actually a bad idea. The dirt becomes kept in the pores causing inflammation ensues.

Make sure to keep hydrated daily by drinking plenty of water daily. The typical person should drink 6-8 servings of water every day. These can clog your pores that will cause more acne.

Should you suffer from zits, wash all your towels, pillowcases, and pillow cases frequently. These linens will all collect bacteria which is often a serious cause of zits breakouts. Wearing the identical outfit for long periods of time can make means for bacteria to increase, so stay with a regular laundry routine.

Dress appropriately to the weather appropriate and then try to wear naturally made clothing. Not only can synthetic fabrics trap sweat near the skin during hot, synthetic fibers trap moisture and also heat near the skin, helping to make zits worse. Physical stress from excessive heat can worsen acne, but wearing clothing appropriate for the climate really helps in reducing stress.

Exercises are a serious component to healthy skin and the look of pimples. Exercise increases your blood circulation, reducing toxins and helping get oxygen and nutrients throughout your whole body. You need exercise and also hardwearing. body health.This may relieve stress, which is shown to cause acne.

Drink an ample amount of water every day to help eliminate zits. Dehydration might cause old skin debris to build up on the surface of the epidermis, which leads to dead skin clogging pores. This may further aggravate an ideal environment for acne condition.

Drink an ample volume of water each day to support yourself on your endeavor of ridding yourself of pimples. When you get dehydrated and dried-out skin, the dead skin cells which you shed continue to be at first glance clogging up your pores. This situation causes aggravation to your zits to worsen.

In case you are dealing with zits, wash all your towels, pillowcases, and towels frequently. These linens will all collect bacteria which can be an important reason behind bad acne. Wearing the identical outfit for longer amounts of time will make way for bacteria to increase, so stick to a consistent laundry routine.

Many people think sunlight might be a solution for pimples, but this really is false information. The sun can worsen your pimples problem because it can result in more oils to get released by the skin. Sun can also cause wrinkles, premature aging plus more serious issues for example skin cancer.

A diet based on healthy, grain, lean protein, and grain may help the body get rid of acne. You can preserve your skin at home by drinking a good amount of water. Try to get outside for no less than 10-20 minutes each day.

In this article, we have discussed how pimples can alter a person both physically and mentally. Additionally, it may cause scars that serve you for a lifetime. Read this article to discover how to decrease your pimples and steer clear of getting scars as a result.

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Fun Things to Offer in a Dental Clinic

The dental clinic, just like any other clinics around, is all white walls, desks, chair, and—exclusive only to the dental clinics—dentist’s chairs. However, the dentist’s chair aside, every clinic is pretty much the same. There are no extra fun services or interesting activities to get your mind of the agony of waiting in line for your turn. So, as a suggestion, here is a list of possible activities that can help a dental clinic deliver something more to its customers.

Available dental products

This is good. You do not only provide dental services. You also help promote a good dental lifestyle. You can provide everything—from toothbrushes and toothpastes to dental floss and mouthwashes. You also have the choice to give these products away for free or sell them for more profit. Personally, I would choose the latter. That will be extra money for your clinic. However, if it is already a big shot dental clinic, they can just give away this stuff for free and count them as part of their marketing strategies. This is a good method, you know. People love free stuff all the time.

Documentaries about dental care

This is a cool and idea. Your dental clinic can be informational and at the same time fun. You can even help educate your customers with dental care and a healthy dental lifestyle. You can do this in different styles. You can have informational graphics pasted on the walls of your clinic. Or, if you have a bigger budget, you can buy television and play documentaries of proper dental care and of perfect teeth. This can either inspire your customers or make them feel insecure enough to take advantage of your services.

Board games

What kills boredom more than games? I know that there is technology to ease that boredom. But because technology has been ubiquitous these days, people get bored with them as well. In that note, why not give your customers that old-fashioned excitement of board games? They can enjoy chess, monopoly, and operation. And I know this is not really a board game because there are really no boards included in the actual game, but you can even offer the thrilling game of jenga! This will make you customers feel more comfortable. And the better thing is that this will endear you more to them. They will have a hard time giving up your dental clinic for something else.

Ice cream

I tell you. Nobody can resist ice cream—unless he or she is lactose intolerant of course. But generally, ice is irresistible to the human race. It is like puppies or cute cats on the Internet. You give that ice cream for free and your clinic is on the roll. Of course, you have to give it to appropriate customers—like kids who just had one of their teeth pulled out and need ice cream to numb their gums. When you give it to people with cavity and tartar problems, your clinic will defeat its purpose.

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How to Find the Time to Exercise

Seriously, who has the time to exercise these days? With family, work, and everything in between, it can be hard to even get sleep in the mix, let alone the recommended daily hour of exercise. But fear not — you do have the time, and if you follow these simple tips, a regular exercise routine will be as much of a part of your day as is brushing your teeth.

1. On Sundays, map out your week. Include all appointments and travel time to each destination. Try to incorporate buffer time, which are the unexpected time-sucks each week. Add in your workouts and treat them like any appointment on your calendar; such as the dentist and your kids’ classes that you drive them to. Think of your workouts as top-priority appointments.

2. Use your mobile device’s “To-Do” lists. There is a lot of wasted time in our days, and that can stem from not being organized. Incorporate better time management, which allows for more time to exercise. Some helpful time management apps are Toodle Do, To Do, and Reminders. You can set check off lists and alarms within the apps. Thus you can create alarms to exercise, and manage your time accordingly. You can manage the rest of your life with Manilla.com, a free, award-winning, and secure service that lets you manage your bills and accounts in one place. It reminds you when you’re bills are due so that you never miss a payment. When you don’t have to stress about tedious tasks like paying bills and keeping up with your balances, you’ll have more time to work out. Time management is key!

3. If your work and family logistics allow, exercise first thing in the day. There are no time excuses if you exercise before work and family excuses can pop into the day. Plus, people who exercise in the morning are more successful at making it a habit, according to the American Council on Exercise.

4. Incorporate time-efficient workouts, such as HIIT training and multi muscle exercises. These exercises are compounding exercises that combine many muscle groups at once. That means you are able to burn more calories, challenge your heart rate, and be time-efficient. For example, a one-minute cycle, repeated 4 times of these three exercises: Burpees, Reverse lunges with Overhead Press, Mountain Climbers with push-ups.

5. Seek out a team or workout class so you have exercise buddies. When you are accountable to someone else, you are less likely to forego your workout. You won’t want to flake on exercise if you know someone is waiting for you.

6. Set a goal. When you have a goal, such as a triathlon or half marathon, the training time is a priority because you need to finish the event. Map out each workout on your calendar, like any other appointment, and highlight the workout and miles when completed.

7. Combine meeting with friends and exercise to create fitness dates. Instead of going to happy hour with your bestie after work, meet for SoulCycle, go for a hike, or on various weekly trail-run dates. Combining playtime with working out allows you to not only get in social time, but fitness time, too.

8. When you’re at work, unless it is part of your job, turn off all social media until lunchtime and after work. I guarantee you will be more productive and by the day’s end, you’ll carve out an hour to exercise. Social media is great, but it can suck people into various conversations, and they lose their workout window. It’s OK to set the timer and give yourself limits, which allows you to create time to exercise.

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Laughter is the Best Medicine

Humor is infectious. The sound of roaring laughter is far more contagious than any cough, sniffle, or sneeze. When laughter is shared, it binds people together and increases happiness and intimacy. Laughter also triggers healthy physical changes in the body. Humor and laughter strengthen your immune system, boost your energy, diminish pain, and protect you from the damaging effects of stress. Best of all, this priceless medicine is fun, free, and easy to use

A. Laughter is strong medicine for mind and body

Laughter is a powerful antidote to stress, pain, and conflict. Nothing works faster or more dependably to bring your mind and body back into balance than a good laugh. Humor lightens your burdens, inspires hopes, connects you to others, and keeps you grounded, focused, and alert.

With so much power to heal and renew, the ability to laugh easily and frequently is a tremendous resource for surmounting problems, enhancing your relationships, and supporting both physical and emotional health.

“Your sense of humor is one of the most powerful tools you have to make certain that your daily mood and emotional state support good health.” ~ Paul E. McGhee, Ph.D.

Laughter is good for your health

1. Laughter relaxes the whole body. A good, hearty laugh relieves physical tension and stress, leaving your muscles relaxed for up to 45 minutes after.
2. Laughter boosts the immune system. Laughter decreases stress hormones and increases immune cells and infection-fighting antibodies, thus improving your resistance to disease.
3. Laughter triggers the release of endorphins, the body’s natural feel-good chemicals. Endorphins promote an overall sense of well-being and can even temporarily relieve pain.
4. Laughter protects the heart. Laughter improves the function of blood vessels and increases blood flow, which can help protect you against a heart attack and other cardiovascular problems.

B. Laughter and humor help you stay emotionally healthy

Laughter makes you feel good. And the good feeling that you get when you laugh remains with you even after the laughter subsides. Humor helps you keep a positive, optimistic outlook through difficult situations, disappointments, and loss.

More than just a respite from sadness and pain, laughter gives you the courage and strength to find new sources of meaning and hope. Even in the most difficult of times, a laugh–or even simply a smile–can go a long way toward making you feel better. And laughter really is contagious—just hearing laughter primes your brain and readies you to smile and join in the fun.

The link between laughter and mental health

1. Laughter dissolves distressing emotions. You can’t feel anxious, angry, or sad when you’re laughing.
2. Laughter helps you relax and recharge. It reduces stress and increases energy, enabling you to stay focused and accomplish more.
3. Humor shifts perspective, allowing you to see situations in a more realistic, less threatening light. A humorous perspective creates psychological distance, which can help you avoid feeling overwhelmed.

C. The social benefits of humor and laughter

Humor and playful communication strengthen our relationships by triggering positive feelings and fostering emotional connection. When we laugh with one another, a positive bond is created. This bond acts as a strong buffer against stress, disagreements, and disappointment.

Laughing with others is more powerful than laughing alone

Shared laughter is one of the most effective tools for keeping relationships fresh and exciting. All emotional sharing builds strong and lasting relationship bonds, but sharing laughter and play also adds joy, vitality, and resilience. And humor is a powerful and effective way to heal resentments, disagreements, and hurts. Laughter unites people during difficult times.

Incorporating more humor and play into your daily interactions can improve the quality of your love relationships— as well as your connections with co-workers, family members, and friends. Using humor and laughter in relationships allows you to:

1. Be more spontaneous. Humor gets you out of your head and away from your troubles.
2. Let go of defensiveness. Laughter helps you forget judgments, criticisms, and doubts.
3. Release inhibitions. Your fear of holding back and holding on are set aside.
4. Express your true feelings. Deeply felt emotions are allowed to rise to the surface.

D. Bringing more humor and laughter into your life

Laughter is your birthright, a natural part of life that is innate and inborn. Infants begin smiling during the first weeks of life and laugh out loud within months of being born. Even if you did not grow up in a household where laughter was a common sound, you can learn to laugh at any stage of life.

Begin by setting aside special times to seek out humor and laughter, as you might with working out, and build from there. Eventually, you’ll want to incorporate humor and laughter into the fabric of your life, finding it naturally in everything you do.

Here are some ways to start:

*Smile. Smiling is the beginning of laughter. Like laughter, it’s contagious. Pioneers in “laugh therapy,” find it’s possible to laugh without even experiencing a funny event. The same holds for smiling. When you look at someone or see something even mildly pleasing, practice smiling.
*Count your blessings. Literally make a list. The simple act of considering the good things in your life will distance you from negative thoughts that are a barrier to humor and laughter. When you’re in a state of sadness, you have further to travel to get to humor and laughter.
*When you hear laughter, move toward it. Sometimes humor and laughter are private, a shared joke among a small group, but usually not. More often, people are very happy to share something funny because it gives them an opportunity to laugh again and feed off the humor you find in it. When you hear laughter, seek it out and ask, “What’s funny?”
*Spend time with fun, playful people. These are people who laugh easily–both at themselves and at life’s absurdities–and who routinely find the humor in everyday events. Their playful point of view and laughter are contagious.
*Bring humor into conversations. Ask people, “What’s the funniest thing that happened to you today? This week? In your life?”

E. Developing your sense of humor: Take yourself less seriously

One essential characteristic that helps us laugh is not taking ourselves too seriously. We’ve all known the classic tight-jawed sourpuss who takes everything with deathly seriousness and never laughs at anything. No fun there!

Some events are clearly sad and not occasions for laughter. But most events in life don’t carry an overwhelming sense of either sadness or delight. They fall into the gray zone of ordinary life–giving you the choice to laugh or not.

Ways to help yourself see the lighter side of life:

#Laugh at yourself. Share your embarrassing moments. The best way to take yourself less seriously is to talk about times when you took yourself too seriously.
#Attempt to laugh at situations rather than bemoan them. Look for the humor in a bad situation, and uncover the irony and absurdity of life. This will help improve your mood and the mood of those around you.
#Surround yourself with reminders to lighten up. Keep a toy on your desk or in your car. Put up a funny poster in your office. Choose a computer screensaver that makes you laugh. Frame photos of you and your family or friends having fun.
#Keep things in perspective. Many things in life are beyond your control—particularly the behavior of other people. While you might think taking the weight of the world on your shoulders is admirable, in the long run it’s unrealistic, unproductive, unhealthy, and even egotistical.
#Deal with your stress. Stress is a major impediment to humor and laughter.
#Pay attention to children and emulate them. They are the experts on playing, taking life lightly, and laughing.

F. Using humor and play to overcome challenges and enhance your life

The ability to laugh, play, and have fun with others not only makes life more enjoyable but also helps you solve problems, connect with others, and be more creative. People who incorporate humor and play into their daily lives find that it renews them and all of their relationships.

Life brings challenges that can either get the best of you or become playthings for your imagination. When you “become the problem” and take yourself too seriously, it can be hard to think outside the box and find new solutions. But when you play with the problem, you can often transform it into an opportunity for creative learning.

Playing with problems seems to come naturally to children. When they are confused or afraid, they make their problems into a game, giving them a sense of control and an opportunity to experiment with new solutions. Interacting with others in playful ways helps you retain this creative ability.

As laughter, humor, and play become an integrated part of your life, your creativity will flourish and new discoveries for playing with friends, coworkers, acquaintances, and loved ones will occur to you daily. Humor takes you to a higher place where you can view the world from a more relaxed, positive, creative, joyful, and balanced perspective.

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Why You Need to Drink Water

You need water to regulate body temperature and to provide the means for nutrients to travel to your organs and tissues. It also helps transport oxygen to your cells, removes waste, and protects your joints and organs. Taking in too litter water or losing too much water leads to dehydration. Symptoms of mild dehydration include thirst, pains in joints and muscles, lower back pain, headaches and constipation.

A strong odor to your urine, along with a yellow or amber color, may indicate that you may not be getting enough water. Note that riboflavin, a B vitamin, will make your urine bright yellow when you take dietary supplements that contain large amounts of riboflavin. Certain medications can change the color of urine as well.

You lose water through urination, respiration, and by sweating, and you lose more water when you’re active than when you’re sedentary. Diuretics, such as caffeine pills, certain medications and alcohol may increase the amount of water your body loses. Lost fluids must be replaced by the fluids in the foods you eat and the beverages you drink.

How much water do you need to drink? At least twenty percent of the water you need comes from the foods you eat. The rest comes from the beverages you drink. Some experts believe you can estimate the amount of water you need by taking your weight in pounds and dividing that number in half. That gives you the number of ounces you may want to drink each day. For example, if you weigh 160 pounds, you might want to drink at least 80 ounces of water or other fluids per day. Other factors include amount of physical activity and the climate where you are located. My hydration calculator can help you determine how much water you need to drink each day.

Water is probably the best choice for rehydration because it’s cheap and has no calories or added ingredients. Tap and bottled was is often fluoridated, to help prevent tooth decay. Sweetened soft drinks and sodas have added sugar that adds extra calories but no additional nutritional value. Sports drinks contain minerals that may help keep your electrolytes in balance, which is good for recovering after a hard work out, but look out for added sugar and calories that you may not want. Fruit and vegetable juices can be a good choice because they have vitamins and minerals your body needs (read labels, however — vegetable juices may be high in sodium). Caffeinated beverages like tea and coffee count too, but too much caffeine can make you feel jittery.

Sources:

Armstrong LE, Pumerantz AC, Roti MW, Judelson DA, Watson G, Dias JC, Sokmen B, Casa DJ, Maresh CM, Lieberman H, Kellogg M. “Fluid, electrolyte, and renal indices of hydration during 11 days of controlled caffeine consumption.” Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005 Jun;15(3):252-65.

Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. “Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate.” Accessed March 15, 2007. .

Spigt MG, Kuijper EC, Schayck CP, Troost J, Knipschild PG, Linssen VM, Knottnerus JA. “Increasing the daily water intake for the prophylactic treatment of headache: a pilot trial.” Eur J Neurol. 2005 Sep;12(9):715-8.

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Daily plan for better sleep

1. MORNING

Stick to a schedule

A good night’s sleep actually starts when you wake up. “Sunlight activates the brain,” says Dr Frisca Yan-Go, medical director of the UCLA Sleep Disorders Centre.

And activating it at the same time every morning synchronises your body’s biological clock. Then your body has a clear direction that at night it’s supposed to be asleep, and at 8am it’s supposed to be awake.

If you wake up at a different time every day – or even just sleep in regularly on weekends – your internal clock is out of sync, which makes it much harder to keep a regular sleep schedule.

2. MIDDAY

Exercise

Getting physical makes an amazing difference to how well you sleep: on average, exercise reduces the time it takes to drop off by 12 minutes, and increases the total sleep time by a whopping 42 minutes.

The great news is that it doesn’t take much exertion to have an effect. Studies show that, for women, even incidental exercise – such as walking six blocks at a normal pace during the day – significantly improves sleep.

So, try to fit in a walk at lunch with a friend. Apparently, women who have healthy friendships and good, interactive relationships with children also sleep better.

3. AFTER WORK

a. Eating and drinking

Researchers at the University of Sydney have found that eating a high-carbohydrate meal four hours before bed can halve the time it takes to fall asleep.

Alcohol, on the other hand, can disturb your body throughout the night as it is progressively metabolised. A glass of wine with dinner is fine, but be aware that more than that may significantly impact the quantity and quality of your rest.

b. Don’t work late

More than half of all employees take work home, 59% check voicemails after work, and 69% check work e-mails from home. Bad idea: researchers at Stanford University have found that even just seeing the light from your computer monitor right before bed is enough to reset your wake/sleep cycle and postpone the onset of sleep by three hours.

So, keep your computer shut down or outside the bedroom. Also, make it a rule to turn off the e-mail notification feature on your handheld device when you get home, and turn off your mobile phone in the evening if possible.

4. LATE EVENING

“Me” time

You need some time alone to wind down and switch from being the woman who can do everything into the woman who can sleep. Yes, our evenings are full of urgent errands, family dramas and dreaded bills to pay online. But try also to give yourself time to unwind.

To avoid being kept awake with worries looping through your mind all night as you lie in bed, use the hour or so before sleep as your “worry time”. Here’s how: sit down with index cards and write down one of your worries on each card. Then go back and look at the first card for a reality check. Is there anything you can do about it?

If there isn’t, rip up the card. If there is, write down actions you can take and tuck the card into a “worry box”. Then leave it for the night. You can decide how to take action in the morning.

5. BEDTIME

a. Chill out

According to Dr Rebekah Wang-Cheng, a medical director at Kettering Medical Centre in Dayton, Ohio, lowering the ambient temperature of your bedroom can be an effective tool for getting better sleep, as lower temperatures tell your body it’s time to turn in.

b. Hide the clock

If you wake up at night and see the time, it can make you anxious about not being asleep. Instead, turn the face of the clock to the wall or cover it. Relax – you’ll still hear the alarm.

c. Wear socks to bed

OK, socks may not be sexy, but studies have shown that wearing them – and only them – to bed actually helps you sleep, as warming your feet allows your internal body temperature to drop.

Also, forget pyjamas; sleeping naked makes it easier for you to adjust your very own comfort zone with sheets and blankets that you can pull up or throw off, says Dr Charles Bae, a neurologist and sleep specialist at the Cleveland Clinic Sleep Disorders Centre. It also makes the next, fun step much more likely…

d. Have a quickie

Lots of us feel we’re too tired for sex. But the “Big O” is still one of the best sleep-inducing remedies around. Now, if you can just persuade your partner to view socks as a turn-on, everyone wins!

If you’ve tried everything and still aren’t sleeping after a few weeks, seek help from your GP, or visit the Sleep Disorders Australia website for assistance and contacts.

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